Wednesday, September 21, 2005

DNA, genetics and population dynamics: debunking the aryan invasion propaganda by Chandrakant Panse

sep 21st

more on the aryan invasion fairy tale.

i wish i understood genetics better, but more and more of the data points to the aryan invasion being a complete myth.

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DNA, genetics and population dynamics: debunking the aryan invasion propaganda

Dr. Chandrakant Panse

Summary: The so-called Aryan invasion, an idea designed to divide the
Hindus of Northern and Southern Bharat, was never supported by any
concrete evidence and yet was elevated to the stature of a theory.  It
has been pushed in secondary school textbooks as a dogma.  Science now
conclusively rejects any notion of any Aryan invasion of the Indian
subcontinent.

I.  Background

Study of changes (mutations, insertions) in chromosomal DNA is very
difficult due to its magnitude.  In humans, the egg contains 22
chromosomes plus the X sex chromosome, and the sperm has similar 22
plus either the X or the Y sex chromosome.  An XX combination in the
embryo ensues a female, and an XY a male.  There are some 3 billion
DNA base pairs in the 46 chromosomes in a human cell.  Studying
changes as markers in only the Y chromosome can be simpler, but traces
only the male ancestry.

Cells contain mitochondria, structures where oxygen is utilized.  A
mitochondrion has its own DNA, only 16,569 base pairs long, and
entirely independent of the chromosomal DNA.  Following mutations in
the mtDNA is thus significantly easier, but traces only female
ancestry as the mitochondria are descendants of the egg, with no
contribution from the sperm.

Attempts at linking of populations through insertions of repeat
sequences are underway (1), but call for abundant caution because
sampling errors, numbers of markers employed, choices of markers,
statistical models selected for analysis, etc., influence the results
of such studies (2).  More importantly, polymorphism (different
alleles, or slightly different forms of the same gene) subjected to
local positive selection can result in convergent evolution, the
reverse also holds true, and these can lead to abnormal conclusions
regarding histories of populations (2). Attempts to demonstrate
similarities amongst Asian and European gene pools not only suffer
from such drawbacks in spite of vigorous statistical analysis, but
also can be explained by multiple mechanisms (3).

II.  North & South Bharatiyas Share mtDNA, Which Is Distinct From That
of Europeans

Extensive sequencing and statistical analysis of a part of mtDNA which
has sustained mutations (the mitochondrial hypervariable region I, HVR
I), from reasonable sample sizes, has shown that certain sequences
dominant in Europe are uncommon in India, and when found, are almost
equally divided amongst the North and South Indians.  Conversely,
there are sequences common to both the North and South Indians which
are uncommon in Europe (4).  These data have been used to estimate the
time of diversion of the peoples of Europe and Asia in the
Pleistocenic era (4), emphasizing that these are phylogenically
different peoples (5).

III.  North & South Bharatiyas Share Tissue Antigens, Distinct From
Those of Europeans

All diploid human cells express a set of proteins on their surfaces,
HLA-A, B and C, which are unique to an individual.  They are coded for
in the major histocompatibility complex of genes (MHC class I) on
chromosome 6.  These are the proteins which are recognized as non-self
by the immune system in transplant rejection, and are variously called
transplant antigens, phynotypic markers, cell-surface markers, etc.
All of these proteins in all persons have identical structures and
functions, yet can be distinguished from others.  Not all 6 class I
antigens (3 each from paternal and maternal copies of chromosomes 6)
may be unique to an individual; some are identical or similar.   MHC
class II proteins (DP, DQ, DR) are expressed by some immune system
cells only, but may be even more polymorphic.

Analysis of the DNA sequences coding for the different forms of these
proteins (alleles) demonstrate that while populations which are
closely related, geographically or through known migrations, show
similarities in their class I and II MHC antigens, the Asians and the
Europeans are distinct, separate but equal, peoples.


Conclusion:  The stark lack of similarities in the gene pools of the
Indian subcontinent and Europe, vividly evident in the mtDNA and the
MHC complex, destroys any >Aryan invasion= notions, and confirms the
genetic uniformity of peoples of the Indian subcontinent.

Chandrakant Pansé, Professor of Biotechnology
Newton, Massachusetts, DrCP@rcn.com, Indian-Americans for Justice &
Peace, www.iajp.org

Credits
I gratefully acknowledge research support from my dharmapatnee Dr.
Ujwala Pansé, professor of biochemistry, and our sukanya Kumaree
Anjali Pansé.

References

1.  Callinana PA, Hedgesa DJ, Salema A-H, Xinga J, Walkera JA, Garbera
RK, Watkinsc WS, Bamshad MJ, et al.  Comprehensive analysis of Alu
associated diversity on the human sex chromosomes. Gene 317, 103 110
(2003).

2.  Bamshad M, Wooding S, Salisbury BA, Stephens JC.  Deconstructing
the Relationship Between Genetics and Race.  Nature Rev. Gen. 5, 598
609 (2004).

3.  Watkins WS, Rogers AR, Ostler CT, Wooding S, Bamshad MJ,
Brassington AE, Carroll ML, Nguyen SV, Walker JA, Ravi Prasad BV, et
al.  Genetic Variation Among World Populations: Inferences From 100
Alu Insertion Polymorphisms.  Genome Res. 13, 1607 1618 (2003).
http://www.genome.org/cgi/content/full/13/7/1607.

4.  Kivisild T, Bamshad MJ, Kaldma K, Metspalu M, Metspalu E, Reidla
M, Laos S, Parik J, Watkins WS, Dixon ME, Papiha SS, Mastana SS, Mir
MR, Ferak V, Villems R.  Deep common ancestry of indian and western
Eurasian mitochondrial DNA lineages. Current Biol. 9, 1331 4 (1999).

5.  Disotell TR.  Human evolution: the southern route to Asia.  Curr.
Biol. 9, R925 8 (1999).

6.  Arnaiz Villena A, Karin M, Bendikuze N, Gomez Casado E, Moscoso J,
Silvera C, Oguz FS, Diler AS, de Pacho A, Allende L, Guillen J, Laso
JM.  HLA alleles and haplotypes in the Turkish population: relatedness
to Kurds, Armenians and other Mediterraneans.  Tissue Antigens 57,
308-317 (2001).

[Paper presented at the Third Annual Human Empowerment Conference at
Houston, Texas between Sept. 16 to 18, 2005]

7 comments:

Anonymous said...

considering that xtians believe adam and eve moved out from sri lanka, the aryan invasion theory is a contradictory belief.

Anonymous said...

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http://www.petitiononline.com/no2naxal/petition.html

Anonymous said...

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Anonymous said...

There is some guy named Witzel at Harvard who is the greatest defender of the AIT.

He apparently said recently that Pakistan had done more to preserve ancient culture than India because he saw some ancient manuscripts rotting in a library in Benares back in 1973.

Anyway, the whole AIT seems to rest on the fact that the Vedas mention horses and that there were no horses on the Indian subcontinent.

Seems kind of ridiculous argument to me.

satish said...

Hi Rajeev,

I wonder what our dear thappar mata has to say about this. I am really waiting to hear about this. Is it possible for you to ask matajee about this, as a journalist.

Wow, I would love to see the reactions of irfan habeeb(responsible for introducing toxic material in our curriculum of schools), and arjun singh (the great detoxifier factory).

I once read your article on rediff about how these jnu walas fear technologists, because, its so easy for us to see through their lies, and jnu walas brand technologists as God-less and fundamentalist, regardless whether they are Hindu or Christian.

S said...

Rajeev,
Have you noticed how the destruction of aryan theory means destruction of the JNU types and their life long effort in academics in supporting marxism ? Ofcourse they could as well be outright killers, they have invested enough to become outright bullies who can get into extortion. But this would just unmask them. I can mail you some references if this subject seems intresting.

Anonymous said...

I hope the real inteligentia high light these findings to the folks in India, they are the ones who really need to realizes the colonialist/missionary game (that is going on even now)! Ofocurse with the marxists and christians completely controlling the education and media segments this will be a tall order. Atleast political parties can use these findings to rally people into a collective society -- again given the corrupt political class, the less said the better!

So much for wishful thinking.