more on the aryan invasion fairy tale.
i wish i understood genetics better, but more and more of the data points to the aryan invasion being a complete myth.
DNA, genetics and population dynamics: debunking the aryan invasion propaganda
Dr. Chandrakant Panse
Summary: The so-called Aryan invasion, an idea designed to divide the
Hindus of Northern and Southern Bharat, was never supported by any
concrete evidence and yet was elevated to the stature of a theory. It
has been pushed in secondary school textbooks as a dogma. Science now
conclusively rejects any notion of any Aryan invasion of the Indian
Study of changes (mutations, insertions) in chromosomal DNA is very
difficult due to its magnitude. In humans, the egg contains 22
chromosomes plus the X sex chromosome, and the sperm has similar 22
plus either the X or the Y sex chromosome. An XX combination in the
embryo ensues a female, and an XY a male. There are some 3 billion
DNA base pairs in the 46 chromosomes in a human cell. Studying
changes as markers in only the Y chromosome can be simpler, but traces
only the male ancestry.
Cells contain mitochondria, structures where oxygen is utilized. A
mitochondrion has its own DNA, only 16,569 base pairs long, and
entirely independent of the chromosomal DNA. Following mutations in
the mtDNA is thus significantly easier, but traces only female
ancestry as the mitochondria are descendants of the egg, with no
contribution from the sperm.
Attempts at linking of populations through insertions of repeat
sequences are underway (1), but call for abundant caution because
sampling errors, numbers of markers employed, choices of markers,
statistical models selected for analysis, etc., influence the results
of such studies (2). More importantly, polymorphism (different
alleles, or slightly different forms of the same gene) subjected to
local positive selection can result in convergent evolution, the
reverse also holds true, and these can lead to abnormal conclusions
regarding histories of populations (2). Attempts to demonstrate
similarities amongst Asian and European gene pools not only suffer
from such drawbacks in spite of vigorous statistical analysis, but
also can be explained by multiple mechanisms (3).
II. North & South Bharatiyas Share mtDNA, Which Is Distinct From That
Extensive sequencing and statistical analysis of a part of mtDNA which
has sustained mutations (the mitochondrial hypervariable region I, HVR
I), from reasonable sample sizes, has shown that certain sequences
dominant in Europe are uncommon in India, and when found, are almost
equally divided amongst the North and South Indians. Conversely,
there are sequences common to both the North and South Indians which
are uncommon in Europe (4). These data have been used to estimate the
time of diversion of the peoples of Europe and Asia in the
Pleistocenic era (4), emphasizing that these are phylogenically
different peoples (5).
III. North & South Bharatiyas Share Tissue Antigens, Distinct From
Those of Europeans
All diploid human cells express a set of proteins on their surfaces,
HLA-A, B and C, which are unique to an individual. They are coded for
in the major histocompatibility complex of genes (MHC class I) on
chromosome 6. These are the proteins which are recognized as non-self
by the immune system in transplant rejection, and are variously called
transplant antigens, phynotypic markers, cell-surface markers, etc.
All of these proteins in all persons have identical structures and
functions, yet can be distinguished from others. Not all 6 class I
antigens (3 each from paternal and maternal copies of chromosomes 6)
may be unique to an individual; some are identical or similar. MHC
class II proteins (DP, DQ, DR) are expressed by some immune system
cells only, but may be even more polymorphic.
Analysis of the DNA sequences coding for the different forms of these
proteins (alleles) demonstrate that while populations which are
closely related, geographically or through known migrations, show
similarities in their class I and II MHC antigens, the Asians and the
Europeans are distinct, separate but equal, peoples.
Conclusion: The stark lack of similarities in the gene pools of the
Indian subcontinent and Europe, vividly evident in the mtDNA and the
MHC complex, destroys any >Aryan invasion= notions, and confirms the
genetic uniformity of peoples of the Indian subcontinent.
Chandrakant Pansé, Professor of Biotechnology
Newton, Massachusetts, DrCP@rcn.com, Indian-Americans for Justice &
I gratefully acknowledge research support from my dharmapatnee Dr.
Ujwala Pansé, professor of biochemistry, and our sukanya Kumaree
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RK, Watkinsc WS, Bamshad MJ, et al. Comprehensive analysis of Alu
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Silvera C, Oguz FS, Diler AS, de Pacho A, Allende L, Guillen J, Laso
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[Paper presented at the Third Annual Human Empowerment Conference at
Houston, Texas between Sept. 16 to 18, 2005]