Wednesday, May 30, 2018

Quick notes: Chinese trap, Prosperity gospel...

Tuesday, May 29, 2018

Fwd: A new kind of superfood

there's good GMO and bad GMO.

---------- Forwarded message ----------
From: New Scientist
Genetically modified products like good-gluten bread and healthier oils are on the way, but will we buy them?
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25 May 2018
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A new kind of superfood
GM Superfoods

Genetically modified foods have been around for decades, but the focus has been on helping the farmer who grows them rather than the person who eats them. Now that's starting to change.

From good-gluten bread to healthier oils, the next generation of GM foods come with a range of benefits to tempt consumers – so will doubters be won over at last?

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sent from samsung galaxy note3 neo, so please excuse brevity

Fwd: Placentas could be your ticket to eternal life

---------- Forwarded message ----------
From: New Scientist

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29 May 2018
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The potential to live indefinitely and cure disease could lie with the placenta
The key to curing disease and extending our lives could lie with the placenta
Want to live to see your great-great grandchildren? XPrize founder Peter Diamandis (left) and surgeon Bob Hariri (right) believe the answer is something overlooked and often discarded: the placenta.

Their company, Celularity, is investigating how we can harness the unique properties of stem cells from the placenta to could cure diseases, from cancer to autoimmune conditions, and extend our lives.
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sent from samsung galaxy note3 neo, so please excuse brevity

Monday, May 28, 2018

The Pashtun Tahaffuz Movement (PTM - Pashtun Protection Movement)

Pashtuns have managed to successfully agitate for the lifting of the old repressive FATA laws which the Pakistani military-state used to control and manipulate them.

Friday, May 25, 2018

Quick notes: China border, Tariff battle...

  • India-China border: China is digging for gold right next to its disputed border with India. “Extensive power lines and communication networks have been established, while construction is under way on an airport that can handle passenger jets.” 

  • Tariff battle: In a retaliatory move, India proposes to raise duties by up to 100% on 20 products such as almonds, apple and specific motorcycles imported from the US

  • Advanced Medium Combat Aircraft: Tamil Nadu to build India’s next generation defence aircraft

  • George Sudarshan: A Lifelong Pursuit Of Science And Vedanta... Even non-Hindus will find refuge in Vedanta if they are sincere in their quest for Truth.

  • Punyakoti - First Sanskrit Animated Movie:

  • Dear #googletranslate, please add Sanskrit:

Saturday, May 19, 2018

Quick notes: Horse domestication, Karnataka bungle...

  • DNA Study Pokes Holes in Horse Domestication Theory:  “A lot of what we’ve published (on horse breeding and Eurasian population shifts) is probably going to be thrown out.”.

  • In 're-education' program, China incarcerates thousands of Muslims: The program forces captives to renounce their religious and ethnic ties in favor of broad nationalism

  • Karnataka bungle: “Once Modi and Shah left, the leaders here went into sleeping mode. The induction of former CM S M Krishna was not used for the benefit of the party. If the party had issued a ticket to Krishna’s daughter Shambhavi from Maddur, a better show would have been possible”.

  • Caste math: A profile of the new Karnataka assembly

  • Battery powered: Ola to add electric three-wheelers to fleet.... Honda may set up electric car battery plant in India.... Electric bicycle and motorcycle sales soar in Europe.

  • NASA satellites reveal freshwater decline: In northern India, groundwater extraction for irrigation of crops such as wheat and rice have caused a rapid decline in available water, despite rainfall being normal throughout the period studied. The fact that extractions already exceed recharge during normal precipitation does not bode well for the availability of groundwater during future droughts.

  • Diabetes type 2: Beans in diet could prevent high blood sugar.... Early time-restricted feeding improves blood sugar control and blood pressure.

Thursday, May 10, 2018

Quick notes: Foreign rifles, Pashtun movement...

  • Pashtun movement: A new nonviolent mass movement has swept through Pakistan in recent months, demanding an end to Pakistan military’s oppression and extrajudicial killings of minority ethnic Pashtuns. This grassroots movement has rattled Pakistan’s deep state, primarily the notorious spy agency, the Inter-Services Intelligence.

  • Flipkart deal: Is it really good news for India? For India as a country, the falling of Flipkart into foreign hands is a serious setback to Modi’s ‘Make in India’ dreams. The entire e-commerce battle is now America versus America.

  • Indian trader, farmer groups decry Flipkart deal: Traders say they are most concerned about predatory pricing and steep discounting by e-commerce firms with deep pockets thanks to foreign funding that could edge out smaller rivals. “If you look at our history as a country, there was a history of colonialism. And there is always a fear that you start with trade and then it becomes control”.

  • Foreign rifles trump 'Make in India': Army closing indigenous high-tech project to save money for imported guns

  • Santana Dharma has always existed and will always exist:

  • Rape Jihad: Teenage girl who plotted British Museum grenade terror attack was "sexually groomed" and "groomed to be radicalised" online by IS fighter Naweed Hussain.

Wednesday, May 09, 2018

Fwd: New Indo Pacific Axis+Fallout of Iran N deal+New Indo Pacific Axis + Mekong river nations face hidden cost of China’s dams

---------- Forwarded message ----------
From: Sanjeev Nayyar

1a. Craven India govt will bow to Trump's edict on Iran 9.5.18 by bharat karnad
'What does India do? With his US policy tilting to the US side and simultaneously distancing India from Russia Modi has tried hard to please Trump, which so far has not prevented Trump from going all out with his moves to close the US as economic bolthole for the Indian middle class — H1B/H-4 visas and chain migration, put imposts on imported Indian steel and aluminium, and then mustered the cheek to demand that India sign the remaining two "foundational accords" — CISMOA and BECA, with the former permitting the US formally to penetrate the Indian government and military's communications net.' And why can't India go back to using friendship  and intimacy with Russia to lever a more equitable relationship with America?
It is that the United States is an unreliable partner and that, for very good reasons, India would be well advised to maintain a certain distance with the US and not sign any meaningful accords with it. '
2. U.S. troops in South Korea a tricky issue 9.5.18
SN – The Chinese want U.S. troops out of south korea as a prelude to North South dispute settlement. Interesting to see how the U.S./South Korea deal with this.
It's time for India, France and Australia to join forces. This innovative security triangle is no flight of think tank fancy, but an ambition now being considered at the highest levels of policy. It was the key message of a far-reaching speech delivered last week by French President Emmanuel Macron at a naval base in Sydney.
Warm Regards
sanjeev nayyar
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sent from samsung galaxy note3 neo, so please excuse brevity

Saturday, May 05, 2018

Monika Arora of Hindu Legal Defense exposes diabolical lies about Kathua

Must watch video. Please share widely.

Smt. Monika Arora of the Hindu Legal Defense Fund must be commended for forcefully and logically articulating the facts.

A well organized conspiracy is underway to defame Hindus and prepare the ground for a genocide to exterminate Hindus. This pattern of vile demonization also preceded the Nazi holocaust of the Jews. A FINAL SOLUTION has been planned to ANNIHILATE Hindus, conquer and divide up India among Mullah, Missionary and Marxist!

After ethnic cleansing of Kashmiri Pandits, Islamofascist Jihadi terrorists are waging a relentless demographic war against the Dogras of Jammu, particularly because of their resistance to illegal settlement of #Rohingya Moslem #Jihadis on their land.

Having been permanently banned on Twitter, I've been silently watching on Facebook, WhatsApp etc. many HINO (Hindu In Name Only) idiots, including friends and relatives - deliberately or inadvertently peddle vicious anti-Hindu propaganda like brainless robots; propaganda that is scripted by some very insidious minds, possibly with support from foreign Intel agencies - intent on #BreakingIndia and that is propagated by paid #Brothelwood nautch girls and #Presstitutes.

It was rather ironic to see Nikhat Khan (aka Kareena Kapoor), herself a willing victim of #LoveJihad and daughter in law 
of Ayesha Khan (aka Sharmila Tagore), one of the original pioneers of #LoveJihad in #Brothelwood and someone who has shamelessly named her illegitimate #LoveJihadi offspring "Timur", i.e. after one of the most tyrannical perpetrators of genocide in human history - lead the #Brothelwood nautch girl breast beating with their stupid, vicious, anti-Hindu and anti-national placards.

She was ably assisted by several other stupid, malicious bimbos, including one soft pornograhic actress "Swara Bhasker" who self identifies simply as a "VAGINA"! LOL.

The Dogra Hindus of Jammu, Hindu nationalists and Hinduism itself was targeted for hateful vilification by this vicious propaganda about the #Kathua incident.

The Dogra people are worshippers of Shakti, the shrine of the Mother Goddess, Mata Vaishno Devi being located in the Jammu region. They worship pre-pubescent girls as a form of the divine Mother in a ritual called "Kanya Poojan" or "Kanjak Poojan". I have witnessed it myself - fully grown men and women bow down reverentially and touch the feet of young "Kanyas" seeing them as the Divine Mother herself!

It is INCONCEIVABLE that the Dogra Hindus would "gang rape" an 8 year old girl child, even a Moslem - leave alone on the premises of a sacred Temple dedicated to the Divine Mother. The diabolical propaganda is nothing short of a FRONTAL ATTACK ON HINDUISM!

I recognized instinctively from Day 1 that the whole #Kathua thing was a fabrication and a diabolical lie.

Forensic evidence, medical reports and circumstantial evidence indicate that 
there was no "rape", leave alone a "gang rape" of 8 year old Asifa, that too on Temple premises.

One of the Hindus falsely implicated in the alleged rape was caught on CCTV camera in an ATM in MuzaffarNagar, U.P - hundreds of Kilometers away - on the same date & time when he was allegedly "raping" the 8 year old Moslem girl. He also wrote a college exam that day in U.P. The accusers allege that he was "invited" by his father to participate in "raping" Asifa! Which Hindu Father would "invite" his own son to to participate in "rape", of a minor girl and that too, in their own sacred Temple? That sounds way too...... Islamic! Was the accused Rahul Jangotra endowed with occult powers to be "Sarva-Stith" (Omnipresent)? This is the sort of thing that "RATIONALISTS" would typically not countenance; certainly not the self proclaimed "SECULARISTS" who advocate "ANTI-SUPERSTITION" laws targeting Hindus specifically!

So, how could he have reached Kathua in Jammu province to "rape" Asifa? There are no airports in MuzaffarNagar, U.P
and no flights to Kathua from Western U.P. Are the #Presstitutes who usually deride "Vedic Science" in derogatory terms - accusing the Dogras of having prowess in tele-transportation or Pushpak Vimanas that they usually sneer at?

All the falsely implicated Hindus have DEMANDED a NARCO TEST and a CBI inquiry, which is inconceivable if they are really guilty! This demand by individuals accused of a heinous crime is probably UNPRECEDENTED in modern jurisprudence anywhere in the world!

The Hindu accused were tortured and falsely implicated by Kashmiri Moslem police - specifically by one Police official Irfan Wani who himself has raped and murdered a minor Hindu girl and also murdered her brother in police custody.
Local police from the Jammu province were deliberately excluded from the "investigation" which is nothing but a deliberate WITCH HUNT and a LYNCHING of innocent Hindus.

The Gujjar Bakerwal community to which the child belonged are generally known to be a moderate Moslem and India supporting, nationalist community, unlike the Sunni Moslem separatist #Jihadis of the Kashmir valley.
This conspiracy is also aimed at "turning" them against India and radicalizing them; ultimately to grab all of Jammu, Kashmir and Ladakh provinces for Islam.

#Kathua was a sinister false flag operation by Kashmiri Jihadis, ISI of Pakistan etc. One of the main activists indulging in breast beating is one Talib Hussain, a Kashmiri Jihadi - who is affiliated with the Hurriyat conference and supposedly close to Syed Ali Shah Geelani! One is forced to appreciate the scale, coordination, emotional quotient and effectiveness of the diabolical hate campaign against Hindus!

There are many ungrateful and treacherous KASHMIRI PANDITS of "Secular" persuasion who are always complicit in every single conspiracy to demonize Hindus and India. They are in action in the #Kathua case too - Deepika Thusu Rajawat, Aarti Tikoo Singh, Nidhi Razdan, Raj Pundita et al. with their loud, vulgar and melodramatic breast beating right from the very beginning - gave the game away - it was obvious that #Kathua was a well scripted vilification campaign against Hindus and India. Their cloak of "secularism", "human rights" etc. is a useless, transparent veneer that is ineffective in cloaking their naked viciousness.

I too want #JusticeForAsifa The scum who *actually* killed the innocent child for their ulterior motives and are using the incident for anti-national propaganda must hang.

In any case, paedophilia and rape are the favorite preoccupation of Islamist Jihadis  in keeping with the hoary traditions of their desert (#Ayesha)which are well known. They even have a GAME called "Taharruf" which is a "sport" dedicated to GANG RAPING INFIDEL WOMEN!

In addition to the #Brothelwood and #Presstitute atrocity propaganda, there was also an orchestrated international  condemnation and vilification campaign against India, Hindus and Prime Minister Narendra Modi personally by: no less than the U.N spokesperson, the Director of the IMF, a woman called Christine La Garde and lo and behold, the editorial board of the New York Times! 

The only thing missing in the diabolical caricature was ugly imagery of a villainous Amrish Puri (#Brothelwood villain) sitting in a Shakti Temple, raping minor Moslem girls; drinking and bathing in their blood and saying in a blood curdling, sinister tone "KHOON  MAANGTI KAALI MAA" (Maa Kali wants blood) - a dirty, diabolical, pornographic scene - right out of an Indiana Jones movie - a nakedly blatant demonization and instigation of hatred against Hindus!

Now, that would have truly given a strange, perverse pleasure of a sexual nature to Hindu hating Lutyens #Presstitutes - even more than the wicked pornographers at the New York Times! I would even venture that such a scene would have reversed the menopause and delivered an instant orgasm to a certain vile enemy agent who masquerades as a "journalist" in Lutyens Delhi. This vicious snake of a woman is well known for having practically SLEPT WITH THE ENEMY, a prominent Pakistani politician - willingly accepting his Jihadi seed and producing an illegitimate son, who incidentally loses no opportunity to defame India and the Hindus, with his pornographic literature in the New York Times about "cattle lynchings" and "persecution of Moslems" in India under the allegedly "Hindu nationalist" government!

And, when the government of India under the much demonized Prime Minister Shri. Narendra Modi responded by passing an ordinance with unprecedented alacrity to make rape of minors PUNISHABLE BY DEATH, there were loud protests by the:

1) Christian Church (which has almost been bankrupted due to paedophile padre related lawsuits in the West) 

2) Maulanas, Mullahs and Madrasa boards (who are also world famous for their #BachaBaazi and #LaundiyaBaazi )

3) Communists who are supposedly "against capital punishment, in principle"
(but are quite prolific in the forcible enslavement, rape and enforced sexual servitude of young women in the Maoist terror squads)

All this while minor Hindu girls and Hindu women, particularly from the vulnerable 
SC/ST community are being subjected, on a daily basis to a deliberate #RapeJihad across the length and breadth of the country. There are way too many instances to cite here. They are happening with sickening regularity :(

This is a deliberate, well organized campaign to capture their wombs as baby producing factories for the ROP
and intended to demonstrate the disempowerment of Hindus in their own country. That is, if we Hindus are incapable of protecting our women from violation and forcible conversion, incapable of protecting our Temples from looting and desecration and incapable of protecting the Cows that we love reverentially as Mother - then, isn't it the ECLIPSE OF THE HINDU NATION?
Isn't it the END OF HINDU CIVILIZATION in its cradle?

In the absence of strong deterrent action by the law enforcement agencies, I do not see any alternative to armed conflict in the near future - merely to safeguard Hindu existence.

A civil war is being imposed on the Hindu nation. At least now, Hindus must wake up from their drunken stupor; their suicidal addiction to #Brothelwood, Cricket and Dhimmi "Gurus" - and organize in Hindu militias with modern weapons and pan India rapid action capabilities - IF such atrocities are to be effectively deterred and the Hindu nation is to survive beyond the next 10-15 years.

Friday, May 04, 2018

Quick notes: Flipkart, Wafer fabs...

Thursday, May 03, 2018

Fwd: What will China gain from humiliating India+Govt fails to deport genuine Bangladeshis+Stone pelters attack school bus in Shopian

---------- Forwarded message ----------
From: Sanjeev Nayyar

1. India China summit highlights Modi's hope vs Xi Strategy 2.5.18 by Brahma C
For example, India said the two leaders "issued strategic guidance" to their respective militaries to avoid further border friction. But China's statement made no mention of that. India, which has chafed against increasingly lopsided trade with China, said agreement was reached to strengthen trade and investment in a "balanced and sustainable manner." But that key phrase was missing from Beijing's version.
As if to pander to India's proverbial weakness — confounding symbolism with substance — Xi focused more on diplomatic stagecraft, including receiving Modi with a very long red carpet,
The U.S. is also warning that India's defense and energy dealings with Russia would attract sanctions under the new Countering America's Adversaries Through Sanctions Act, even as the Trump administration seeks "a flexible waiver authority" from Congress to protect relationships with India and others.
After Modi defiantly stood up to China's Doklam aggression and forced Beijing to accept a mutual pullback from the standoff, Chinese forces in the past eight months have quietly moved in and occupied much of that remote plateau
2a. China, India must strive for harmony 1.5.18
Through this visit, Modi strives to improve India-China relations, adjust neighborhood diplomacy and New Delhi's ties with other major powers, pave the way for his election politically and attract China's investment.
China sees the informal meeting as a way to advance the common growth of developing countries, for Asia's rapid rise and the revival of Eastern civilizations. But for India, this meeting will likely end up achieving their tactical goals under the guise of attractive strategic slogans.
3. The New Han Empire, India and the Quashing of Tibet 2.5.18 by B D Barua
The Modi Government's treatment of the Dalai Lama has been nothing short of derogatory since the leadership assumed power in 2014.  In August of the same year, the Prime Minister met the Dalai Lama in secret at the former's official residence.Besides, Narendra Modi might very well go down in Chinese history as another Harsha, the king who ran to China at the drop of a hat and accepted the subjugation of Xi's Han China. 
4. The fate of a visionary diplomat by Claude Apri 2.5.18
One does not often pay homage to unknown diplomats: hade their advice been followed, the destiny of the nation could perhaps have different. This is the case of Sumul Sinha, the official in charge of the Indian Mission in Lhasa between 1950 and 1952. 

SN – A couple of months ago Mehmooba govt withdrew cases against over 5,000 stone pelters. J&K is a state where BJP strategy is very difficult to understand. They are gifting the State to the Valley.
6. Govt fails to deport genuine Bangladeshis 2.5.18
Warm Regards
sanjeev nayyar

sent from samsung galaxy note3 neo, so please excuse brevity

Fwd: Another $ 1 Billion Loan from China to Pakistan+North Korea next steps+China: Your Market is Mine But MINE+A Case Study of the Rohingya Problem

---------- Forwarded message ----------
From: Sanjeev Nayyar

1. An incremental approach to addressing long-term Sino-Indian issues 29.4.18
So, instead of fixating on trade, India may better improve its balance of payment through financial account surplus in forms of incoming foreign direct investments. This, of course, requires India to put the existing trade deficit in strategic perspectives, further liberalizing its domestic market.
Among others, they may kick-start new initiatives like the China-Nepal-India Trilateral Corridor or revive the Bangladesh-China-India-Myanmar Corridor.
SN – This article sums up the Chinese approach very well. India Savdhaan.
1a. Another $ 1 Billion Loan from China to Pakistan 30.4.18
With the fresh injection, Chinese financial institutions have so far given $2.2 billion to Pakistan to help the country steer through difficult times.
2. Trump is driving Xi into Modi's arms 27.4.18 by Sreeram Chautalia
SN – Hope Indians are hard nosed negotiators and do not get taken in by the flattery.
3. Meeting with Modi to open new chapter in Indo China ties says Xi by Xinhua 28.4.18
SN – Never let your guard down with any country. Express love but be prepared for War.
4. Harmonising AYUSH and modern medicine: Can India learn from China? 26.4.18 by O K Kurien
6. Dahal Oli unification talks fail to progress 28.4.18
7. North Korea next steps 30.4.18 by T.P Sreenivasan
8. A Case Study of the Rohingya Problem 27.4.18 by R Hariharan
Warm Regards
sanjeev nayyar
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sent from samsung galaxy note3 neo, so please excuse brevity

Tuesday, May 01, 2018

Fwd: Indian Antecedents to Modern Economic Thought -- Satish Deodhar

---------- Forwarded message ----------
From: kalyan

Indian economic thoughts predate those of Plato, Aristotle: Satish Deodhar

Full text:


The history of economic thought begins with salutations to Greek writings of Aristotle and Plato. While the fourth century BCE Greek writings may have been the fount of modern economic thought that emerged in Europe starting 18th century CE, there has been a general unawareness of the economic thinking that emanated from the Indian subcontinent. Pre-classical thoughts that had appeared in Vedas dating a millennium prior to the Greek writings had culminated in their comprehensive coverage in the treatise Arthashastra by Kautilya in the fourth century BCE. In this context, the paper outlines various ancient Indian texts and the economic thoughts expressed therein, delves on the reasons why they have gone unnoticed, brings to the fore the economic policies laid down by Kautilya, shows how these policies exemplify pragmatic application of the modern economic principles, and brings out in bold relief, the contribution of this Pre-Classical literature in the history of economic thought.

Ahmedabad, Apr 29 (PTI) The history of economic thoughts begins with paying tributes to 4th century BCE Greek philosophers Plato and Aristotle, but the history of Indian economic thoughts goes back to the Vedas composed at least a millennium before their writings, a research by an IIM professor has stated.
The research paper published by Professor Satish Deodhar (Economics Area) of Indian Institute of Management (IIM)-Ahmedabad also says while the 4th century BCE Greek writings are considered to be the fount of modern economic thoughts that emerged in Europe in 18th century CE, there has been a general lack of awareness about the economic thinking that emanated from ancient Indian texts.
The paper published recently refers to various ancient Indian texts and the economic thoughts expressed therein as it looks into the reasons why they have gone unnoticed.
The senior professor blames foreign invasions and the British rule for "scant attention" paid to the history of Indian economic thoughts.
The pre-classical economic thoughts that appeared in the Vedas dating a millennium prior to the Greek writings culminated in their comprehensive coverage in the treatise Arthashastra by Kautilya in the 4th century BCE, but have remained largely unnoticed, the research paper states.
Though the outwardly thoughts of Indian philosophy were translated and were available to the entire world after the British came, the economic thoughts somehow remain hidden, it says.
"The history of economic thoughts begins with salutations to Greek writings of Aristotle and Plato. The fourth century BCE Greek writings are considered to be the fount of modern economic thought that emerged in Europe starting 18th century CE," the paper says.
The Indian ancient economic thoughts has its origins in the Vedic age, it adds.
"The history of Indian economic thoughts goes back to Vedas which were first composed at least three millennia ago. The expressions of early economic thoughts were grounded in the socio-cultural and material environment that existed then," the paper says quoting texts from the Rig Veda and various other Indian scriptures.
Professor Deodhar says though disjoint and scattered in different texts, these thoughts were profound and did get collated and improvised over centuries.
"The treatise on political economy, Arthashastra, written by Kautaliya in fourth century BCE, came out of the crucible of the Vedic and other secular texts," he says.
The paper gives minute details of economics principles laid down in the Arthashastra.
?The continuity of thoughts, however, was lost probably after the Golden Age of the Gupta dynasty in the sixth century CE , and further escaped into oblivion from the times of external invasions and colonial rule," it says.
Discovery of many of the ancient texts, their translations into English and their exposure, both to domestic and foreign researchers, began only in the early twentieth century, if further says.
"In fact, the Arthashastra was discovered only in the early part of the 20th century, in the possession of a pundit from Tanjavur, Tamil Nadu, a region that was left mostly unharmed by the Muslim conquests. It was transcribed and published in English in 1915 by Dr. R. Shamasastri of the Mysore Oriental Library, and, it took several more decades before it became known to rest of the world," it says.
"However, the colonial preconceptions about ?backwardness? of Indian society resulted in focus of academic research mainly on the otherworldly nature of the Indian tradition," the paper says.
"The hangover continued after Independence, where economist such as R J Krishna, pejoratively referred to India?s slow GDP growth rate as the Hindu Rate of Growth?.
"In fact, having copied the command-and-control model of the Soviet Union, the slow growth rate was the Socialist Rate of Growth.
"A corollary of these developments was that only scant attention was paid to the history of economic thought that emerged in the Indian subcontinent," the paper says.
If the Sanskrit grammarian Panini came up with nomenclature for compound interest circa 700 BCE, it was Kautilya who understood the relation between interest rates and risk and uncertainty, it says.
"In contrast, the western world had looked down upon interest as usury until a millennium after Kautilya?s treatise," it says.
The paper quotes numerous verses on economics from ancient Indian texts. It also quotes various verses on how poverty was considered as a bad state to be in.
The research paper further says that the original varna system which degenerated into present caste system, was invented for division of labour.
Clearly, the division of people among four varnas -- Brahmin, Kshatriya, Vaishaya, and Shudra i.e . knowledge seeker, warrior, tradesman, and artisan/cultivator -- was based on guna-karma (aptitude driven vocation) and not birth,? the research paper said quoting various verses from ancient texts.
"In contrast to varnas, the endogamous jati system prevalent in India was not ordained by the Indian sacred texts," it says.
The intent of the paper is to present and give recognition to the economic thought that had emerged in ancient Indian literature, professor Deodhar said.
"While otherworldly features of Indian tradition may be unique, what I have presented is the literature that shows importance given to material conditions and the economic incentives," he further said.
"Had this literature been accessible to the occidental thought during the middle ages and the mercantilist period, classical economics might have evolved much earlier,? the study says in conclusion.