Here are a couple of very interesting articles on how federalism is being used as a competitive vehicle for economic reforms:
This is a very valuable strategy that would lay the groundwork for more sweeping and comprehensive reforms once Modi gets a majority in the Rajya Sabha. In the meantime, pending that fuller mandate, the competitive federalist route could be used to great effect, especially once the GST is used as a basis for ending tariff barriers between states. Once all states are forced to compete in a common Indian market, then competitive federalism will reward the reformist-minded, while penalizing the holdouts. It would create a "virtuous cycle" that would benefit the entire country.