- 'Made in India' versus 'Make in India': In defence, "Make in India" never provided Indian manufacturers the capability to upgrade platforms that require fresh technology as time goes by; in fact, manufacturing licensing conditions usually stipulate that the buyer can make no alterations. That is why India, which carried out "Make in India" of the MiG-21 for decades, had to go back to Russia when it upgraded the fighter. It is on maintenance, repair, overhaul and upgrade that foreign vendors make their real money, even on equipment that has been licence-built in India. It is variously estimated that the MiG-21, over its lifetime, cost India 20-40 times its purchase cost. The Mirage 2000 is another example of costs expanding ten- or twentyfold. In contrast, a "Made in India" aircraft like the Tejas could be continually upgraded without licensing issues, altered and supplied anywhere in the world.
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